Additive manufacturing (AM) utilizing two-photon polymerization lithography (TPP) has elevated in utilization in trade and analysis. At present, a serious constraint of TPP typically and particularly of the fabric IP-Q (Nanoscribe GmbH, Germany) is the customers’ restricted entry to information about materials properties. As a result of nature of the method, the elastic properties particularly rely not solely on the utilized materials but in addition on construction measurement, course of, and fabrication parameters. For instance, earlier than analysis just lately printed within the Journal of Optical Microsystems, no diploma of conversion (DC) and Younger’s modulus (E) values for IP-Q had been reported.
As a result of nature of the method, the elastic properties particularly rely not solely on the utilized materials but in addition on construction measurement, course of parameters, and hatch technique. A typical strategy makes use of a mixture of Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation to characterize the DC of monomer to polymer measurable by way of Raman spectroscopy, which might then be associated to the mechanical habits of the fabric, measurable by way of nanoindentation.
Ongoing analysis on acoustic metagratings and metamaterials fabricated on MEMS would profit from optimized elastic parameters to supply adjustability of the acoustic habits, as they have an effect on the attribute acoustic impedance straight. AM encompasses processes with which objects may be created three-dimensionally from a technical drawing. The info are despatched to an AM system, which then performs the fabrication. AM by way of TPP relies on selective curing of a liquid precursor to create strong constructions inside a drop of monomer. Afterwards, the leftover liquid is washed away. Well-known TPP purposes are optical sub-micron constructions, the place the photoresist IP-Dip (Nanoscribe GmbH, Germany) is often utilized. The extra just lately developed photoresist IP-Q was designed by the identical producer for bigger purposes, e.g. mounts, molds, and structural metamaterials. Pattern constructions from every of the 2 photoresists had been produced in parameter sweeps. This enables the comparability of course of parameters to the ensuing traits. Raman spectroscopy was employed, which is a non-contact evaluation methodology for materials characterization wherein monochromatic mild is scattered off the fabric.
The reflection includes not solely the irradiated wavelength but in addition Raman scattering. The attribute peaks of the Raman scattering spectrum can be utilized for the identification of chemical substances. In our work, it was used to find out the ratio of monomer to polymer—or DC—within the TPP samples.
Micro- and nanoindentation had been used to check the mechanical properties of the samples. A tough tip whose mechanical properties are identified is pressed into the pattern whose properties are unknown. From the slope of the load vs. displacement curve, E values had been computed.
Lastly, parameter sweeps of cuboid pattern constructions fabricated utilizing TPP had been investigated throughout the parameters laser energy and scan pace to search out dependent properties. The employed photoresists had been examined utilizing Raman spectroscopy to search out the DC of monomer to polymer, and subsequently micro- or nanoindentation had been used to search out E.
For IP-Dip, the attained DC and E ranged from 20 to 45% and 1 to 2.1 GPa, respectively. The outcomes had been in comparison with stories discovered within the literature. For IP-Q, the attained DC and E ranged from 53 to 80% and 0.5 to 1.3 GPa, respectively. The characterised properties of IP-Q manifest as the present state of data of the fabric.
“By this implies, providing an strategy to optimize elastic parameters of TPP-fabricated constructions can be useful for numerous ongoing analysis subjects. A promising utility for this methodology is the characterization of the elastic parameters of acoustic metagratings and metamaterials fabricated on MEMS. These gadgets can subsequently be applied beneficially in life science, mobility, and industrial purposes,” stated Severin Schweiger of Fraunhofer Institute of Photonic Microsystems and Brandenburg College of Expertise in Germany.
Severin Schweiger et al, Characterization of two-photon-polymerization lithography constructions by way of Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation, Journal of Optical Microsystems (2022). DOI: 10.1117/1.JOM.2.3.033501
SPIE–Worldwide Society for Optics and Photonics
Overcoming a serious manufacturing constraint (2022, August 12)
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